Proyecto Titi | Conserving Colombia's Wildlife
Proyecto Tití:
Conserving the
Cotton-top Tamarin
in Colombia
Cotton-top Tamarin
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Plant Species Consumed by Cotton-top Tamarins

Most callitrichids eat the fruits of trees, vines and epiphytes, insects, newly sprouted leaves, buds or flowers, and small vertebrates. Some species also rely on tree exudates (gum and sap). 

The examination of diet showed that cotton-tops in Santa Catalina and Colosó feed from more than 50 and 60 different tree species, respectively, in at least 45 families. With fruit making up the largest portion of the diet, cotton-top tamarins may be important seed dispersal agents for trees in the rainforest. Garber (1986) found the planting of defecated seeds from two tamarin species yielded a germination success rate of 70%, Callitrichids are likely influencing both regeneration and structure of the forest. 

The diet is highly seasonal, correlating with the rainy season when most trees are fruiting. When fruit is scarce, the proportion of gums, nectar, and insects in the diet increases. 

Food Type:  F = Fruit, G = Gum, N = Nectar, Fl = Flower
Field Site: C = Coloso, SC = Santa Catalina

Family Species Common Name Food Type Field Site
Acanthaceae Tichanthera sp. Palo de agua F C
Amaranthaceae Chamissoa altissima Pintaboyo F SC
Anacardiaceae Anacardium excelsum Caracolí F, G C
Astronium graveolens Santa cruz G SC, C
Mangifera indica Mango F C
Spondias mombin Jobo F, G C, SC
Anonaceae Annona purpurea Guanábana matimbáa N SC
Ephedranthus colombianus Yaya prieta F C
Apocynaceae Formosia sp. Peronillo Fl C
Rauvolfia ligustrina Venenito F SC
Thevetia ahouai Tomatillo F SC
Araceae Philodendron cf. hederaceum Abrazadera F SC,C
Arecaceae Desmoncus orthacanthos Matamba F C, SC
Sabal mauritiiformis Palma amarga F SC
Bignoniaceae
Anemopaegma orbiculatum Bejuco de bacota N SC
Cydista aequinoctialis Bejuco colorao N SC
Macfadyena unguis-cati Bejuco uñita N SC
Pithecoctenium crucigerum Bejuco canastilla N SC
Tabebuia sp. Pijiño blanco F C
Tanaecium jaroba Bejuco calabacilla N SC
Bombacaceae
Cavanillesia platanifolia Macondo G SC
Ceiba pentandra Ceiba bonga G SC
Pachira quinata Ceiba colorada N SC
Pseudobombax septenatum Ceiba Fl C
Boraginaceae Cordia bicolor Muñeco F C
Cordia dentata Uvito F C, SC
Cordia lucidula Arato F SC
Burseraceae Bursera simarouba Indio en cuero G SC
Cactaceae
Acanthocereus pitajaya Pitahaya F, T SC, C
Pereskia guamacho Guamacho F SC, C
  Cactus   C
Caesalpiniaceae Brownea ariza Arizal B C
Cassia grandis Cañandonga G SC
Capparidaceae Capparis baducca Guanabanito F C, SC
Crataeva tapia Naranjuelo F SC
Caricaceae Carica papaya Papaya F C
Celastraceae Maytenus longipes Corocito F C, SC
Combretaceae Combretum fruticosum Peinecillo N C, SC
Cucurbitaceae Momordica charantia Balsamina F SC
Ebenaceae Diospyros inconstans Juan de dios F SC
Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia calabura Periquito F C
Erythroxylaceae Erythoxylon sp. Coca de mico G C
Euforbiaceae Alcalifa sp. Arara F C
Cnidosculus urens   G SC, C
Hura crepitans Ceiba de leche Fl SC
Fabaceae Acacia affinis Bejuco zarza G  
Lonchocarpus cf. pictus Majagua de gallina G SC
Swartzia  simplex Arara F SC
Flacourtiaceae Casearia corymbosa Vara de humo F C
Mayna grandifolia Puerco espín F SC
Xylosma intermedium Carita de santo F C, SC
Hippocrateaceae Hippocratea cf. volubilis Bejuco corralero G SC
Lauraceae Nectandra membranaceae Aguacatillo G C
Lecytidaceae Lecythis minor Olla de mono G SC, C
Leguminosae Albizzia caribaea Guacamayo F, G C, SC
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Orejero F, G C
Enterolobium sp. Chicho G C
Inga hayesii Guamito F SC
Mimosa sp. Zarza G C
Phitecellobium himeanaefolium Loro F C
Pithecellobium lanceolatum Tiribuchi F SC
Pithecellobium samán Campano G C
Loganiaceae Strychnos tarapotensis Bejuco alambre F SC
Loranthaceae Phoradendron quadrangulare Cagadita de pájaro F C, SC
Malpighiaceae Malpighia punicifolia Cerezo montana F C
Malvaceae Malvaviscus arboreus Quesito F SC
Meliaceae Cedrella odorata Cedro G C
Trichilia acuminata Negro viejo F C, SC
Trichilia appendiculata Mangle F, G C
Trichilia hirta Hobo Verde F SC, C
Trichilia martiana Vara de piedra F C, SC
Menispermaceae Cissampelos pareira Nigua de puerco F SC
Odontocarya tamoides Nigua de puerco F SC
Mimosaceae Zygia inaequalis Guamo arroyero G SC
Moraceae Brosimum alicastrum Guáimaro F C, SC
Brosimum guianense Fruta de pava F SC
Brosimum sp. Caucho F, Fl C
Cecropia obtusifolia Guarumo F C
Cecropia sp. Yarumo F, Fl C
Chlorophora tinctoria Mora F C
Ficus dendroica Suan F C
Ficus pallida Cope F C
Maclura tinctoria Mora F SC
Pouruma sp. Uva de monte F C
Sorocea sprucei Pempinillo F SC
Myrcinaceae Stylogyne turbacensis Patica de paloma F C, SC
Myrtaceae Eugenia acapulcensis Escobillo F C, SC
Psidium guajaba Guayabo macho F, G C
Nyctaginaceae Neea nigricans Buchesapo F, FI C, SC
Phytolaccaceae Trichostigma octandrum Bejuco de burro F SC
Piperaceae Piper aduncum Cordoncillo F SC
Polygonaceae Coccoloba caracasana Uvita roja F SC
Coccoloba coronata Juan garrote Fl SC
Rubiaceae
Alibertia edulis Yaya de cajon F SC
Ciniciolia spinosa Fruta de pava F C
Genipa americana Jagua F C, SC
Genipa caruto Encerao F C
Genippa americana Zapatillo F, Fl C
Pittoniotis trichantha Pigiño blanco F SC, C
Psychotria sp. Ají de monte F SC
Randia armata Maria angola de espina F C, SC
Randia formosa Maria angola F SC
Rondeletia purdiei Bola de titi F SC
Santalaceae Acanthosyris colombiana Yaya de sangre F SC
Sapindaceae Allophyllus Crispeta F SC
Matayba scrobiculata Guacharaco F SC
Melicoca bijuga Mamón F C
Paullinia cururu Ojo de perdiz F SC
Paullinia pinnata Carne asada F C, SC
Sapindus saponaria Jaboncillo G SC
Talisia olivaeiformis Mamón de maría F SC
  Manao F, G C
Sapotaceae Manilkara chicle Níspero F C
Manilkara sp. Níspero de monte F C
Sideroxilon persimile Guayacán de bola F SC
Urea tamarindoides Tamarindo F C
  Costilla de vaca F C
Solanaceae Solanum enoplacalyx Una de gato F SC
Sterculiaceae Basiloxylum excelsum Zapato G C
Guazuma ulmifolia Guácimo F C, SC
Luehea sp. Cabo de hacha F C
Luehea sp. Molenillo F C
Sterculia apétala Camajón F C
Ulmaceae Celtis iguaneus Maíz tostado F C
Urticaceae Urera baccifera Pringamoza F C, SC
Verbenaceae Vitex compresa Aceituno F SC
Vitaceae Cissus sicyoides Bejuco uva F SC
  Cachicarnero F C
  Huevo de icotea F SC
  Nuez moscado F C
  Varita de lazo F SC

References:

Castillo, E.F.G. 1996. Contribucion al conocimiento de la ecologia y etologia del titi de cabeza blanca (Saguinus oedipus - Linnaeus 1758), en la Serrania de la Coraza, Montes de Maria, Coloso, Sucre-Colombia. B.S. Thesis. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Rizkalla, C. 2000. Feeding ecology and conservation of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia. M.E.M. Thesis. Duke University.

Rodriguez, G.M. 2001. Inventario floristico de un bosque seco tropical en la hacienda “El Ceibal,” Santa Catalina (Bolivar), con énfasis en las especies asociadas a la dieta del titi cabeciblanco (Saguinus oedipus). B.S. Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

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